PARTS OF SPEECH

YEAR LEVEL
ENGLISH STRANDS
ENGLISH SUB-STRANDS
SUB-STRAND ELEMENT
ELABORATION
ENGLISH TYPE
ELEMENT CODE
GENERAL CAPABILITIES
CROSS-CURRICULA PRIORITIES
1
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Identify the parts of a simple sentence that represent ‘What’s happening?’, ‘Who or what is doing or receiving the action?’ and the circumstances surrounding the action (ACELA1451)
• knowing that, in terms of meaning, a basic clause represents: what is happening (verb); who or what is participating (noun group); and the surrounding circumstances (adverbial)

• understanding that a simple sentence expresses a single idea, represented grammatically by a single independent clause (for example 'A kangaroo is a mammal. A mammal suckles its young'
READING, WRITING
(ACELA1451)
Literacy

1
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Explore differences in words that represent people, places and things (nouns and pronouns), actions (verbs), qualities (adjectives) and details like when, where and how (adverbs) (ACELA1452)
• talking about effective words that describe a place, person or event

• learning how a sentence can be made more vivid by adding adjectives, adverbs and unusual verbs
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1452)
Literacy

2
LANGUAGE
Language for interaction
Identify language that can be used for appreciating texts and the qualities of people and things (ACELA1462)
exploring how language is used to express feelings including learning vocabulary to express a gradation of feeling, for example ‘happy’, ‘joyful’, ‘pleased’, ‘contented’

exploring in stories, everyday and media texts moral and social dilemmas; such as right and wrong, fairness/unfairness, inclusion and exclusion; learning to use language to describe actions and consider consequences

exploring how language is used to construct characters and settings in narratives, including choice of nouns such as ‘girl’, ‘princess’ or ‘orphan’, and choice of adjectives such as ‘gentle’, ‘timid’ or ‘frightened’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1462)
Critical and creative thinking , Ethical behaviour , Intercultural understanding, Personal and social competence

2
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Recognise that capital letters signal proper nouns and commas are used to separate items in lists (ACELA1465)
talking about how a comma can be used to separate two or more elements in a list, for example ‘At the museum they saw a Tasmanian tiger, a dinosaur and two snakes’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1465)
Literacy

2
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that simple connections can be made between ideas by using a compound sentence with two or more clauses and coordinating conjunctions (ACELA1467)
learning how to express ideas using compound sentences


learning how to join simple sentences with conjunctions, for example ‘and’, ‘but’ or ‘so’, to construct compound sentences
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1467)
Literacy

2
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that nouns represent people, places, things and ideas and can be, for example, common, proper, concrete and abstract, and that noun groups can be expanded using articles and adjectives (ACELA1468)
exploring texts and identifying nouns that refer to characters, elements of the setting, and ideas

exploring illustrations and noun groups in picture books to identify how the noun groups have been represented by an illustrator

exploring names of people and places and how to write them using capital letters

using selected nouns as a basis for building extended noun groups that provide a clear description of an item
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1468)
Literacy

2
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Recognise common prefixes and suffixes and how they change a word’s meaning (ACELA1472)
joining discussion about how a prefix or suffix affects meaning, for example uncomfortable, older, and division
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1472)
Literacy

2
LITERATURE
Creating texts
Reread and edit text for spelling, sentence-boundary punctuation and text structure (ACELY1672)
reading their work and adding, deleting or changing words, prepositional phrases or sentences to improve meaning, for example replacing an everyday noun with a technical one in an informative text

checking spelling using a dictionary

checking for inclusion of relevant punctuation including capital letters to signal names, as well as sentence beginnings, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks

making significant changes to their texts using a word processing program ( for example add, delete or move sentences)
WRITING
(ACELY1672)
Critical and creative thinking , ICT, Literacy

3
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Know that word contractions are a feature of informal language and that apostrophes of contraction are used to signal missing letters (ACELA1480)
recognising both grammatically accurate and inaccurate usage of the apostrophe in everyday texts such as signs in the community and newspaper advertisements
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1480)
Literacy

3
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that a clause is a unit of meaning usually containing a subject and a verb and that these need to be in agreement (ACELA1481)
knowing that a clause is basically a group of words that contains a verb

knowing that, in terms of meaning, a basic clause represents: what is happening; who or what is participating, and the surrounding circumstances
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1481)
Literacy

3
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that verbs represent different processes (doing, thinking, saying, and relating) and that these processes are anchored in time through tense (ACELA1482)
identifying different types of verbs and the way they add meaning to a sentence

exploring action and saying verbs in narrative texts to show how they give information about what characters do and say

exploring the use of sensing verbs and how they allow readers to know what characters think and feel

exploring the use of relating verbs in constructing definitions and descriptions

learning how time is represented through the tense of a verb and other structural, language and visual features
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1482)
Literacy

3
LITERATURE
Examining literature
Discuss how language is used to describe the settings in texts, and explore how the settings shape the events and influence the mood of the narrative (ACELT1599)
identifying and discussing the use of descriptive adjectives (‘in the middle of a vast, bare plain’) to establish setting and atmosphere (‘the castle loomed dark and forbidding’) and to draw readers into events that follow


discussing the language used to describe the traits of characters in stories, their actions and motivations: ‘Claire was so lonely; she desperately wanted a pet and she was afraid she would do anything, just anything, to have one to care for’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELT1599)
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

3
LITERACY
Creating texts
Reread and edit texts for meaning, appropriate structure, grammatical choices and punctuation (ACELY1683)
using glossaries, print and digital dictionaries and spell check to edit spelling, realising that spell check accuracy depends on understanding the word function, for example there/their; rain/reign
WRITING
ACELY1683)
ICT, Literacy

4
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Understand how texts are made cohesive through the use of linking devices including pronoun reference and text connectives (ACELA1491)
knowing how authors construct texts that are cohesive and coherent through the use of: pronouns that link back to something previously mentioned; determiners (for example ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, ‘those’, ‘the’, ‘his’, ‘their’); text connectives that create links between sentences (for example ‘however’, ‘therefore’, ‘nevertheless’, ‘in addition’, ‘by contrast’, ‘in summary’)
identifying how a topic is described throughout a text by tracking noun groups and pronouns

describing how texts connectives link sections of a text providing sequences through time, for example ‘firstly’, ‘then’, ‘next’, and ‘finally’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1491)
Literacy

4
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that the meaning of sentences can be enriched through the use of noun and verb groups and prepositional phrases (ACELA1493)
creating richer, more specific descriptions through the use of noun groups (for example in narrative texts, 'Their very old Siamese cat'; in reports, 'Its extremely high mountain ranges'
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1493)
Literacy

4
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand how adverbials (adverbs and prepositional phrases) work in different ways to provide circumstantial details about an activity (ACELA1495)
investigating in texts how adverbial phrases and clauses can add significance to an action, for example ‘more desperately’, ‘he rose quietly and gingerly moved’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1495)
Literacy

4
LITERATURE
Examining literature
Understand, interpret and experiment with a range of devices and deliberate word play in poetry and other literary texts, for example nonsense words, spoonerisms, neologisms and puns (ACELT1606)
defining spoonerisms, neologisms and puns and exploring how they are used by authors to create a sense of freshness, originality and playfulness

discussing poetic language, including unusual adjectival use and how it engages us emotionally and brings to life the poet’s subject matter (for example ‘He grasps the crag with crooked hands’/wee timorous beastie)
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELT1606)
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

4
LITERACY
Creating texts
Reread and edit for meaning by adding, deleting or moving words or word groups to improve content and structure (ACELY1695)
revising written texts: editing for grammatical and spelling accuracy and clarity of the text, to improve the connection between ideas and the overall flow of the piece
WRITING
(ACELY1695)
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

5
LANGUAGE
Language for interaction
Understand how to move beyond making bare assertions and take account of differing perspectives and points of view (ACELA1502)
recognising that a bare assertion (for example 'It's the best film this year') often needs to be tempered by: using the 'impersonal it' to distance oneself (for example 'It could be that it is the best film this year'); recruiting anonymous support (for example 'It is generally agreed that it is the best film this year.'); indicating a general source of the opinion (for example 'Most critics agree that it is the best film this year.'); specifying the source of the opinion (for example 'David and Margaret both agree that it is the best film this year') and reflecting on the effect of these different choices
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1502)
Critical and creative thinking , Personal and social competence

5
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Understand how possession is signalled through apostrophes and how to use apostrophes of possession for common and proper nouns (ACELA1506)
examining how conventions of punctuation are used in written and digitally composed lists and learning that in Standard Australian English it is not necessary to add another ‘s’ to the end of a plural noun to indicate possession (‘James' house’/ ‘my parents' car’)
READING, WRITING
(ACELA1506)
Literacy

5
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand the difference between main and subordinate clauses and how these can be combined to create complex sentences through subordinating conjunctions to develop and expand ideas (ACELA1507)
knowing that the function of complex sentences is to make connections between ideas, such as: to provide a reason (for example 'He jumped up because the bell rang.'); to state a purpose (for example 'She raced home in order to confront her brother.'); to express a condition (for example 'It will break if you push it.'); to make a concession (for example 'She went to work even though she was not feeling well.'); to link two ideas in terms of various time relations (for example 'Nero fiddled while Rome burned.')
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1507)
Literacy

5
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand how noun and adjective groups can be expanded in a variety of ways to provide a fuller description of the person, thing or idea (ACELA1508)
learning how to expand a description by combining a related set of nouns and adjectives – ‘Two old brown cattle dogs sat on the ruined front veranda of the deserted house’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1508)
Literacy

6
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520)
noting how writers often leave out words that have already been mentioned (for example 'Tina ate three apples and Simon ate two. [apples]’)

noting how writers often substitute a general word for a more specific word already mentioned, thus creating a cohesive link between the words (for example 'Look at those apples. Can I have one?')

recognising how cohesion can be developed through repeating key words or by using synonyms or antonyms

observing how relationships between concepts can be represented visually through similarity, contrast, juxtaposition, repetition, class-subclass diagrams, part-whole diagrams, cause-and-effect figures, visual continuities and discontinuities
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING
(ACELA1520)
Literacy

6
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Investigate how clauses can be combined in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend or explain ideas (ACELA1522)
knowing that a complex sentence typically consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause connected by a subordinating conjunction (for example ‘because’, ‘when’, ‘after’, ‘if’, ‘while’, ‘although’). Note: Dependent clauses of time, purpose, reason, concession, condition and so on are referred to as ‘adverbial clauses’

knowing that the function of complex sentences is to make connections between ideas, such as: to provide a reason (for example 'He jumped up because the bell rang'); to state a purpose (for example 'She raced home in order to confront her brother'); to express a condition (for example 'It will break if you push it'); to make a concession (for example 'She went to work even though she was not feeling well'); to link two ideas in terms of various time relations (for example 'Nero fiddled while Rome burned')
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
(ACELA1522)
Literacy

6
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverbials (ACELA1523)
knowing that verbs often represent actions and that the choice of more expressive verbs makes an action more vivid (for example 'She ate her lunch' compared to 'She gobbled up her lunch')

knowing that adverbials can provide important details about an action (for example 'At nine o'clock the buzzer rang loudly throughout the school.')

knowing the difference between the simple present tense (for example 'Pandas eat bamboo.') and the simple past tense (for example 'She replied.')

knowing that the simple present tense is typically used to talk about actions that happen regularly in the present (for example 'He watches TV every night.') or that represent 'timeless' actions, as in information reports (for example 'Bears hibernate in winter.')

knowing that there are various ways in English to refer to future time (for example 'She will call you tomorrow'; 'I am going to the movies tomorrow'; 'Tomorrow I leave for Hobart')
READING, WRITING
(ACELA1523)
Literacy

6
LITERATURE
Responding to literature
Identify and explain how choices in language, for example modality, emphasis, repetition and metaphor, influence personal response to different texts (ACELT1615)
noting how degrees of possibility are opened up through the use of modal auxiliaries (for example 'It may be a solution'; 'It could be a solution.') as well as through other resources such as adverbs (for example 'It's possibly/probably/certainly a solution.'); adjectives (for example 'It's a possible/probable/certain solution'); and nouns (for example 'It's a possibility/probability.')
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING
(ACELT1615)
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

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