SENTENCES

YEAR LEVEL
ENGLISH STRANDS
ENGLISH SUB-STRANDS
SUB-STRAND ELEMENT
ELABORATION
ENGLISH TYPE
GENERAL CAPABILITIES
CROSS-CURRICULA PRIORITIES
0F
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Recognise that sentences are key units for expressing ideas (ACELA1435)
learning that word order in sentences is important for meaning (for example 'The boy sat on the dog', 'The dog sat on the boy')

creating students' own written texts and reading aloud to the teacher and others
READING, WRITING
Literacy

0F
LITERACY
Creating texts
Create short texts to explore, record and report ideas and events using familiar words and beginning writing knowledge (ACELY1651)
using image-making and beginning writing to represent characters and events in written, film and web-based texts

using speaking, writing and drawing to represent and communicate personal responses to ideas and events experienced through texts

creating short spoken, written and multimodal observations, recounts and descriptions, extending vocabulary and including some content-specific words in spoken and written texts

using beginning concepts about print, sound–letter and word knowledge and punctuation to create short texts
SPEAKING, WRITING
Critical and creative thinking , ICT, Literacy , Personal and social competence
Sustainability
1
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Understand patterns of repetition and contrast in simple texts (ACELA1448)
• identifying patterns of vocabulary items in texts (for example class/subclass patterns, part/whole patterns, compare/contrast patterns, cause-and-effect patterns, word associations/collocation [organisation of words into a sentence])

• discussing different types of texts and identifying some characteristic features and elements (for example language patterns and repetition) in stories and poetry
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

1
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Identify the parts of a simple sentence that represent ‘What’s happening?’, ‘Who or what is doing or receiving the action?’ and the circumstances surrounding the action (ACELA1451)
• knowing that, in terms of meaning, a basic clause represents: what is happening (verb); who or what is participating (noun group); and the surrounding circumstances (adverbial)


• understanding that a simple sentence expresses a single idea, represented grammatically by a single independent clause (for example 'A kangaroo is a mammal. A mammal suckles its young'
READING, WRITING
Literacy

2
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that simple connections can be made between ideas by using a compound sentence with two or more clauses and coordinating conjunctions (ACELA1467)
learning how to express ideas using compound sentences


learning how to join simple sentences with conjunctions, for example ‘and’, ‘but’ or ‘so’, to construct compound sentences
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

2
LITERATURE
Interpreting, analysing and evaluating
Read less predictable texts with phrasing and fluency by combining contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge using text processing strategies, for example monitoring meaning, predicting, rereading and self-correcting (ACELY1669)
using prior and learned knowledge and vocabulary to make and confirm predictions when reading text

using grammatical knowledge to predict likely sentence patterns when reading more complex narratives and informative texts

using knowledge of sound–letter relationships and high frequency sight words when decoding text

monitoring own reading and self-correcting when reading does not make sense, using illustrations, context, phonics, grammar knowledge and prior and learned topic knowledge

using grammar and meaning to read aloud with fluency and intonation
READING
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

2
LITERATURE
Creating texts
Reread and edit text for spelling, sentence-boundary punctuation and text structure (ACELY1672)
reading their work and adding, deleting or changing words, prepositional phrases or sentences to improve meaning, for example replacing an everyday noun with a technical one in an informative text

checking spelling using a dictionary

checking for inclusion of relevant punctuation including capital letters to signal names, as well as sentence beginnings, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks

making significant changes to their texts using a word processing program ( for example add, delete or move sentences)
WRITING
Critical and creative thinking , ICT, Literacy

3
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that a clause is a unit of meaning usually containing a subject and a verb and that these need to be in agreement (ACELA1481)
knowing that a clause is basically a group of words that contains a verb

knowing that, in terms of meaning, a basic clause represents: what is happening; who or what is participating, and the surrounding circumstances
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

3
LITERACY
Interpreting, analysing and evaluating
Read an increasing range of different types of texts by combining contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge, using text processing strategies, for example monitoring, predicting, confirming, rereading, reading on and self-correcting (ACELY1679)
combining different types of knowledge (for example world knowledge, vocabulary, grammar, phonics) to make decisions about unknown words, reading on, reviewing and summarising meaning

analysing the way illustrations help to construct meaning and interpreting different types of illustrations and graphics

reading text types from a student’s culture to enhance confidence in building reading strategies

reading aloud with fluency and intonation

reading a wider range of texts, including chapter books and informative texts, for pleasure
READING
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy , Personal and social competence

3
LITERACY
Creating texts
Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features and selecting print,and multimodal elements appropriate to the audience and purpose (ACELY1682)
using print and digital resources to gather information about a topic

selecting appropriate text structure for a writing purpose and sequencing content for clarity and audience impact

using appropriate simple, compound and complex sentences to express and combine ideas

using vocabulary, including technical vocabulary, relevant to the text type and purpose, and appropriate sentence structures to express and combine ideas
WRITING
Critical and creative thinking , ICT, Literacy

4
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand that the meaning of sentences can be enriched through the use of noun and verb groups and prepositional phrases (ACELA1493)
creating richer, more specific descriptions through the use of noun groups (for example in narrative texts, 'Their very old Siamese cat'; in reports, 'Its extremely high mountain ranges'
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

4
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand how adverbials (adverbs and prepositional phrases) work in different ways to provide circumstantial details about an activity (ACELA1495)
investigating in texts how adverbial phrases and clauses can add significance to an action, for example ‘more desperately’, ‘he rose quietly and gingerly moved’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

5
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Understand that the starting point of a sentence gives prominence to the message in the text and allows for prediction of how the text will unfold (ACELA1505)
observing how writers use the beginning of a sentence to signal to the reader how the text is developing (for example 'Snakes are reptiles. They have scales and no legs. Many snakes are poisonous. However, in Australia they are protected')
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

5
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand the difference between main and subordinate clauses and how these can be combined to create complex sentences through subordinating conjunctions to develop and expand ideas (ACELA1507)
knowing that the function of complex sentences is to make connections between ideas, such as: to provide a reason (for example 'He jumped up because the bell rang.'); to state a purpose (for example 'She raced home in order to confront her brother.'); to express a condition (for example 'It will break if you push it.'); to make a concession (for example 'She went to work even though she was not feeling well.'); to link two ideas in terms of various time relations (for example 'Nero fiddled while Rome burned.')
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

5
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Understand how noun and adjective groups can be expanded in a variety of ways to provide a fuller description of the person, thing or idea (ACELA1508)
learning how to expand a description by combining a related set of nouns and adjectives – ‘Two old brown cattle dogs sat on the ruined front veranda of the deserted house’
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

6
LANGUAGE
Text structure and organisation
Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521)
identifying different uses of commas in texts
READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

6
LANGUAGE
Expressing and developing ideas
Investigate how clauses can be combined in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend or explain ideas (ACELA1522)
knowing that a complex sentence typically consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause connected by a subordinating conjunction (for example ‘because’, ‘when’, ‘after’, ‘if’, ‘while’, ‘although’). Note: Dependent clauses of time, purpose, reason, concession, condition and so on are referred to as ‘adverbial clauses’

knowing that the function of complex sentences is to make connections between ideas, such as: to provide a reason (for example 'He jumped up because the bell rang'); to state a purpose (for example 'She raced home in order to confront her brother'); to express a condition (for example 'It will break if you push it'); to make a concession (for example 'She went to work even though she was not feeling well'); to link two ideas in terms of various time relations (for example 'Nero fiddled while Rome burned')
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Literacy

6
LITERATURE
Creating literature
Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example, using imagery, sentence variation, metaphor and word choice (ACELT1800)
selecting and using sensory language to convey a vivid picture of places, feelings and events in a semi-structured verse form
LISTENING, READING, SPEAKING, WRITING
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy , Personal and social competence