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Science Understanding
Biological sciences
Living things have structural features and adaptations that help them to survive in their environment (ACSSU043)
  • describing and listing adaptations of living things suited for the Australian environment
  • exploring general adaptations for particular environments such as water conservation in deserts
  • explaining how particular adaptations help survival such as nocturnal behaviour, silvery coloured leaves of dune plants
  • comparing types of adaptations such as behavioural and structural
Critical and creative thinking
Chemical sciences
Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways (ACSSU077)
  • comparing solids and liquids by investigating differences, such as the ability to flow or maintain shape and volume
  • observing that gases have mass and take up space demonstrated by using balloons or bubbles
  • exploring the way solids, liquids and gases change under different situations such as heating and cooling
  • recognising that some materials such as foam are composite materials and cannot be easily classified as solids, liquids or gases on the basis of their observable properties
  • recognising that substances exist in different states depending on the temperature
Critical and creative thinking

Earth and space sciences
The Earth is part of a system of planets orbiting around a star (the sun) (ACSSU078)
  • identifying the planets of the solar system and comparing how long they take to orbit the sun
  • modelling the relative size of and distance between Earth, other planets in the solar system and the sun
  • recognising the role of the sun as a provider of energy for the Earth
Critical and creative thinking
Physical sciences
Light from a source forms shadows and can be absorbed, reflected and refracted (ACSSU080)
  • drawing simple labelled ray diagrams to show the paths of light from a source to our eyes
  • comparing shadows from point and extended light sources such as torches and fluorescent tubes
  • classifying materials as transparent, opaque or translucent based on whether light passes through them or is absorbed
  • recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the colour of the light source
  • exploring the use of mirrors to demonstrate the reflection of light
  • recognising the refraction of light at the surfaces of different transparent materials, such as when light travels from air to water or air to glass
Critical and creative thinking

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science
Science involves testing predictions by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena (ACSHE081)
  • developing an understanding of the behaviour of light by making observations of its effects
  • testing predictions relating to the behaviour of solids, liquids and gases by conducting observational experiments
  • researching how scientists were able to develop ideas about the solar system through the gathering of evidence through space exploration
Critical and creative thinking

Important contributions to the advancement of science have been made by people from a range of cultures (ACSHE082)
  • describing how scientists from a range of cultures have improved our understanding of the solar system, such as Copernicus, Khayyám and Galileo
  • researching the different types of scientists who work in teams in space exploration, and Australia’s involvement in space exploration
  • learning how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people used observation of the night sky to assist with navigation
Intercultural understanding, Personal and social competence
Aboriginal Torres Straight Is history and culture
Use and influence of science
Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to solve problems that directly affect peoples’ lives (ACSHE083)
  • investigating how the development of materials such as plastics and synthetic fabrics have led to the production of useful products
  • describing how technologies developed to aid space exploration have changed the way people live, work and communicate
  • exploring objects and devices that include parts that involve the reflection, absorption or refraction of light such as mirrors, sunglasses and prisms
Personal and social competence

Scientific knowledge is used to inform personal and community decisions (ACSHE217)
  • considering how best to ensure growth of plants
  • considering how decisions are made to grow particular plants and crops depending on environmental conditions
  • comparing the benefits of using solid, liquid or gaseous fuels to heat a home
  • describing the safety aspects of using gases
Critical and creative thinking , Ethical behaviour , Personal and social competence
Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting
With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems or inform a scientific investigation, and predict what the findings of an investigation might be (ACSIS231)
  • discussing in groups possible situations to investigate
  • applying experience from similar situations in the past to predict what may happen in a new situation
  • sharing ideas about what may happen and why
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

Planning and conducting
With guidance, select appropriate investigation methods to answer questions or solve problems (ACSIS086)
  • experiencing a range of ways of finding information and ideas, including internet research
  • considering different investigation methods, including experimental testing, field work and conducting surveys
Critical and creative thinking , ICT, Literacy , Numeracy

Decide which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests and accurately observe, measure and record data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS087)
  • discussing in groups how investigations can be made as fair as possible
  • using the idea of an independent variable (note: this terminology does not need to be used at this stage) as something that is being investigated by changing it and measuring the effect of this change
  • using familiar tools such as rulers, weighing scales and watches to measure objects and events in investigations
  • adding information to tables, graphs and spreadsheets
  • using familiar units such as grams, seconds and metres and developing the use of standard multipliers such as kilometres and millimetres
ICT, Numeracy

Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS088)
  • discussing possible hazards involved in conducting investigations, and how these risks can be reduced
Ethical behaviour

Processing and analysing data and information
Construct and use a range of representations, including tables and graphs, to represent and describe observations, patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS090)
  • identifying similarities and differences in qualitative data in order to group items or materials
  • describing simple cause-and-effect relationships as shown by trends in quantitative data
ICT, Literacy , Numeracy

Compare data with predictions and use as evidence in developing explanations (ACSIS218)
  • sharing ideas as to whether observations match predictions, and discussing possible reasons for predictions being incorrect
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy , Numeracy

Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS091)
  • working collaboratively to suggest improvements to the methods used
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a variety of ways, including multi-modal texts (ACSIS093)
  • using labelled diagrams, including cross-sectional representations, to communicate ideas
  • using a variety of communication modes such as reports, explanations, arguments, debates and procedural accounts, to communicate scientific ideas
  • understanding how models can be used to represent scientific ideas and constructing physical models to demonstrate an aspect of scientific understanding
ICT, Literacy , Numeracy