Science Understanding
Biological sciences
The growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical conditions of their environment (ACSSU094)
  • investigating how changing the physical conditions for plants impacts on their growth and survival such as salt water, use of fertilizers and soil types
  • observing the growth of fungi such as yeast and bread mould in different conditions
  • researching organisms that live in extreme environments such as Antarctica or a desert
  • considering the effects of physical conditions causing migration and hibernation
Critical and creative thinking
Chemical sciences
Changes to materials can be reversible, such as melting, freezing, evaporating; or irreversible, such as burning and rusting (ACSSU095)
  • describing what happens when materials are mixed
  • investigating the solubility of common materials in water
  • investigating the change in state caused by heating and cooling of a familiar substance
  • investigating irreversible changes such as rusting, burning and cooking
  • exploring how reversible changes can be used to recycle materials
Critical and creative thinking
Earth and space sciences
Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface (ACSSU096)
  • investigating major geological events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis in Australia, the Asia region and throughout the world
  • recognising that earthquakes can cause tsunamis describing how people measure significant geological events
  • exploring ways that scientific understanding can assist in natural disaster management to minimise both long- and short-term effects
  • considering the effect of drought on living and non-living aspects of the environment
Critical and creative thinking
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia , Sustainability
Physical sciences
Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring and transforming electricity (ACSSU097)
  • recognising the need for a complete circuit to allow the flow of electricity
  • investigating different electrical conductors and insulators
  • exploring the features of electrical devices such as switches and light globes

Physical sciences
Energy from a variety of sources can be used to generate electricity (ACSSU219)
  • investigating how moving air and water can turn turbines to generate electricity
  • investigating the use of solar panels considering whether an energy source is sustainable
Critical and creative thinking
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science
Science involves testing predictions by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena (ACSHE098)
  • investigating how knowledge about the effects of using the Earth’s resources has changed over time
  • describing how understanding of the causes and effects of major natural events has changed as new evidence has become available
  • investigating the use of electricity, including predicting the effects of changes to electric circuits
  • considering how gathering evidence helps scientists to predict the effect of major geological or climatic events
Critical and creative thinking
Important contributions to the advancement of science have been made by people from a range of cultures (ACSHE099)
  • investigating how people from different cultures have used sustainable sources of energy, for example water and solar power
  • exploring institutions and locations where contemporary Australian scientists conduct research on catastrophic natural events
  • learning how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge, such as the medicinal and nutritional properties of Australian plants, is being used as part of the evidence base for scientific advances
  • investigating the development of earthquake measurements from the Chinese invention of the seismograph in the second century
Intercultural understanding, Personal and social competence
Aboriginal Torres Straight Is history and culture, Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia , Sustainability
Use and influence of science
Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to solve problems that directly affect peoples’ lives (ACSHE100)
  • researching the scientific work involved in global disaster alerts and communication, such as cyclone, earthquake and tsunami alerts
  • investigating how electrical energy is generated in Australia and around the world researching the use of methane generators in Indonesia
  • considering how electricity and electrical appliances have changed the way some people live
Ethical behaviour , Intercultural understanding, Personal and social competence
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia , Sustainability
Scientific knowledge is used to inform personal and community decisions (ACSHE220)
  • considering how personal and community choices influence our use of sustainable sources of energy
  • investigating how understanding of catastrophic natural events helps in planning for their early detection and minimising their impact
  • recognising that science can inform choices about where people live and how they manage natural disasters
  • considering how guidelines help to ensure the safe use of electrical devices
  • discussing the use of electricity and the conservation of sources of energy
Critical and creative thinking , Ethical behaviour , Personal and social competence
Science Inquiry Skills
Questioning and predicting
With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems or inform a scientific investigation, and predict what the findings of an investigation might be (ACSIS232)
  • discussing in groups possible situations to investigate or identify problems that relate to students’ lives
  • applying experience from similar situations in the past to predict what may happen in a new situation
  • sharing ideas about what may happen in an investigation and why
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

Planning and conducting
With guidance, select appropriate investigation methods to answer questions or solve problems (ACSIS103)
  • experiencing a range of ways of finding information and ideas, including internet research
  • considering different investigation methods, including experimental testing, field work and conducting surveys
Critical and creative thinking , ICT, Literacy , Numeracy

Planning and conducting
Decide which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests and accurately observe, measure and record data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS104)
  • discussing in groups how investigations can be made as fair as possible
  • using the idea of an independent variable (note: this terminology does not need to be used at this stage) as something that is being investigated by changing it and
measuring the effect of this change
using familiar tools such as rulers, weighing scales and watches to measure objects and events in investigations
  • using familiar units such as grams, seconds and metres and
developing the use of standard multipliers such as kilometres and millimetres
Critical and creative thinking

Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS105)
  • discussing possible hazards involved in conducting investigations, and how these risks can be reduced
Critical and creative thinking , ICT, Numeracy

Processing and analysing data and information
Construct and use a range of representations, including tables and graphs, to represent and describe observations, patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS107)
  • identifying similarities and differences in qualitative data in order to group items or materials
  • describing simple cause-and-effect relationships as shown by trends in quantitative data
ICT, Numeracy

Compare data with predictions and use as evidence in developing explanations (ACSIS221)
  • sharing ideas as to whether observations match predictions, and discussing possible reasons for predictions being incorrect
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS108)
  • working collaboratively to suggest improvements to the methods used
Critical and creative thinking , Literacy

Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a variety of ways, including multi-modal texts (ACSIS110)
  • using labelled diagrams, including cross-sectional representations, to communicate ideas
  • using a variety of communication modes, such as reports, explanations, arguments, debates and procedural accounts, to communicate science ideas
  • understanding how models can be used to represent scientific ideas and constructing physical models to demonstrate an aspect of scientific understanding
ICT, Literacy , Numeracy